Journal & Magazine Publications

Embarking on New Orientations Towards Horizon 2020

Oscar Lazaro, Man-Sze Li, Luis Camarinha-Matos, Stuart Campbell, Ricardo-Jardim Goncalves, Claudia Guglielmina, Sergio Gusmeroli , Jon Psarras, Yannis Charalabidis, Fenareti Lampathaki, Margaretha Mazura, Michele Missikoff, Jesper Thestrup, Martin Zelm, Markus Eisenhauer, Tobias Muench, Angelika Salmen, Conny Weber, Reinhard Willfort
Position Paper for FInES Cluster

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The H2020 Research and Innovation Programme relies on 3 pillars (excellence in science, industrial leadership and societal challenges) to boost the European society towards the generation of new qualified jobs and sustainable growth. Over the last 20 years, Internet has changed the way we develop, perform and understand business. Thus, the European way to the Internet of the Future, based on open platforms, web entrepreneurship and collective innovation, represents now an unprecedented opportunity for European enterprises towards multi-faceted business innovation, socio-economic competitive advantage and human-centric sustainable growth. In the opinion of many international analysts, ICT is now evolving to a global Internet of Everything (IoE) economy that from 2013 to 2023 will generate $14.4 trillion in Value at Stake, i.e. the combination of increased revenues and lower costs, that will be created or will flow among companies and industries adopting in real life business processes and operations the new technologies. IoE economy will impact the whole socio-economic systems, and most prominently manufacturing, energy and retail industries, influencing all enterprises business processes and models. Future Internet (FI) technologies and infrastructures (including cloud and mobile computing, Internet of Things, Big Data analytics, IPv6 and next generation networks and computational and storage architectures), when embedded and entangled in vital and critical business processes in a transparent and seamless way (according to the IoE vision) will constitute the most prominent drivers for enterprise business innovation (playing the role of product innovation pace accelerators, process innovation optimisers, service innovation enablers, social innovation catalysts), this way supporting a new renaissance of European digital enterprises.

ComVantage: Mobile Enterprise Collaboration Reference Framework and Enablers for Future Internet Information Interoperability

Angelika Salmen, Tobias Münch, Steffen Buzin, Jan Hladik, Werner Altmann, Conny Weber, Dimitris Karagiannis, Robert Buchmann, Jens Ziegler, Johannes Pfeffer, Markus Graube, Manuel Carnerero, Oscar López, Mikel Uriarte, Patricia Ortiz, Oscar Lázaro
FIA Book 2013

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Future Internet Networked Enterprise Systems demand enhanced collaboration and mobility support. FI technologies are fundamental for increased service differentiation and cost optimisation in manufacturing environments. However, such ICT-based capabilities are not easy to introduce, in particular to SMEs, due to high costs and complexity. To progress in more effective development of value added services based on Web 2.0 principles within a mobile enterprise collaboration context, the complexity of collaboration in terms of information management needs to be leveraged from the end-users. Linked Data (LD) provides a universal and lightweight approach for the collaboration network. However, the elaboration of collaborative business processes based on LD still needs to be properly formulated for FI systems. The aim of this paper is to present a reference architecture for mobile enterprise collaboration based on LD interoperability. Moreover, security, semantic data lifting, business process modelling interoperability and mobile app orchestration enablers are presented to facilitate trustful and effective inter-organisational collaboration.

Collaborative Manufacturing Network for Competitive Advantage – ComVantage

Martín Serrano, Payam Barnaghi, Philippe Cousin, Tobias Muench, Oscar Lázaro et al
“IoT Semantic Interoperability: Research Challenges, Best Practices, Solutions and Next Steps, IERC AC4 Manifesto “Present and Future”

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ComVantage envisions an inter-organisational collaboration space turning today’s organisation-centric manufacturing approach into a product-centric one. Manufacturers will benefit from a flexible, efficient platform that helps them to operate as one virtual factory and thus gain competitive advantages in their markets. Based on best practises of Web 2.0 technologies will allow to share, administrate and monitor focused information throughout a product’s life cycle in a de-centralised manner. The close collaboration on the B2B and B2C levels will foster existing trends such as Open Innovation or Crowd Sourcing.
The framework of the virtual factory will encompass a secure access control that is founded on dynamic workflow models and flexible user roles accounting for large enterprises, SMEs and for end-customers. It will enable temporary and de-centralised access management for adhoc collaboration between geographically distributed experts.
To adhere to changing working situations, to efficient communication, and to rich interaction technologies ComVantage will focus on mobile devices. Intuitive and trustful mobile apps shall support users in fast decision-making and problem solving. Information from different sources across the organisations is provided and maintained via Linked Data. The integration of sensor data allows for products to be members of the collaboration space.

Flexibility vs. Security in Linked Enterprise Data Access Control Graphs

Markus Graube, Patricia Ortiz, Manuel Carnerero, Oscar Lázaro, Mikel Uriarte, Johannes Pfeffer and Leon Urbas
“Enterprise Interoperability” Book chapter, Journal of Information Assurance and Security ISSN 1554-1010 Volume 9 (2014) pp. 093-103

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Linked Data offers easy extensibility and interoperability of information spaces. This provides a great potential for industrial companies allowing to share information with partners in a virtual enterprise. Hence, together they can become faster and more flexible which results in an advantage in the market. However, there is still the barrier to protect own information with a fine grain. Access control graphs are an approach for this issue. Information is put into different views by executing inference mechanisms on role-based policy rules. Afterwards queries are automatically rewritten at runtime in order to match the generated views and provide only data from views that should be accessible by the authenticated role. This paper demonstrates the balance between flexibility and security using this approach. The amount and complexity of the policy rules are highly dependent on the information model used. However, a moderate restriction of the huge flexibility in the information modeling allows for few rules, but those are powerful ones. Additionally, the approach can also be leveraged for consistency checking of Linked Data information structures. Thus, clients can rely on these data invariants and the information provider can rely on the fact that fine grained access is granted.

Leveraging IoT Interoperability for Enhanced Business Process in Smart, Digital and Virtual Factories

June Sola, Alicia Gonzalez, Oscar Lázaro
“Enterprise Interoperability” Book chapter, ”7th Conference on Interoperability for Enterprises Systems and Applications, Albi, France, 2014

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IoT technologies are enabling technologies for new Smart Manufacturing solutions. IoT Interopeability opens the opportunity to the development of horizontal platforms that will provide services and information that will be linked across multiple domains and collaborators. This new scenario with increased visibility, rich and abundant real-time information about many kinds of sensors and product information; are the perfect ground to build new business processes that contribute towards STEEP objectives of European re-industrialisation. This paper will presnets the new technical capabilities leveraged by IoT interoperability frameworks such as those developed as part of the ComVantage and FITMAN projects. The paper discusses the new business models and business processes that can be implemented by manufacturing industries based on these new technical foundations. The paper will share some insights into the impact that can be achieved with these new business processes and the Future Internet dimensions that are most valued by enterprises engaged in the development and definition of such innovative business processes.

Annotation und Vernetzung von Planungsdokumenten als Zwi-schenschritt zur digitalen Anlage

Markus Graube, Michael Obst, Leon Urbas
Automation 2014, Baden-Baden

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The digital factory consists of a mapping of the characteristics and structures of real plants, processes and products in a cross-linked and integrated digital information space. Current engineering processes and tools handle explicit modelling of knowledge in a neutral semantic information model as not much important. In some cases only the physical documents are digitised rather than preparing the underlying semantic information. This is mainly due to the high cost of a comprehensive semantic processing. Secondly, digital documents have still advantages because they allow a user-friendly editing in existing standard applications.
Therefore, this paper proposes an integration of these digital documents in a cross-linked information space. It indicates a transition path to handle documents for the direct use of the information in the digital factory. Some information areas are not processed semantically, but provided as a digital binary (eg PDF, DOC or XLS). Thus can be used for an application that supports the neutral semantically specified information model for the fully elaborated information. Secondly, the existing standard applications can continue to be used, which can be accessed automatically by the applications for the neutral data format for proprietary documents. For this, a semantic annotation of the document information and a link to already recognised semantic information can be performed. This paper extends the approach of Drath and Barth of a privately-neutral mixed data format to the integration of digital binary packages and more networking in the neutral data format, resulting in faster to greater information density and quality of information.
This approach is presented as an example of industrial maintenance, are transferred to the planning documents and their revision information together from the CAE tool Comos in a common semantic information model with the plant structure. With Linked Data as an information model, the chain of CAE tool on the conversion and deployment in triple stores is presented to the context-based representation on mobile devices in the field. Suitable for ontology representation for the meta-information PROV is identified. Finally advantages and disadvantages of the approach are discussed, upon which research issues were identified.

A Simulation Study: The Business Value Of E-Business For A Maintenance Providers

Orit Raphaeli, Liron Rosenfeld, Lior Fink, Sigal Berman
28th European Conference on Modelling and Simulation

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The exploitation of IT using the Internet platform to integrate inter-firm processes, often termed “e- business”, has gained research attention due to its potential to enhance the competitive position of businesses. However, the business value of new e- business technologies has remained unexamined given the complexity of the processes through which value is created. In this study we investigate the value of an emerging e-business technology, founded on mobile cloud computing technology. We focus on evaluating the prospective impacts of a collaborative manufacturing network, currently developed by an EC research project, in an automation maintenance company. Three simulation models were constructed, one for the traditional corrective maintenance operation mode as well as two alternative maintenance scenarios enabled by the collaborative platform that allows dynamic allocation of technicians, based on fault status. The results show that by using the collaborative platform, efficiency and service quality can be improved along with reduced cost and improved sustainability. Moreover, communication infrastructure quality negatively affected system contribution. Results also show that the collaborative capabilities, allowing effective handling of different demand volumes, have also improved system flexibly along the demand dimension. Managerial implications of the results are discussed.

The Business Value of Mobile Applications: A Cross-European

Gali Naveh, Orit Raphaeli, Sigal Berman, Lior Fink
OASIS Pre-ICIS Workshop, 2013, Italy

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While the business value of Information Technology (IT) has repeatedly been demonstrated in the past decades, this stream of research has focused on overarching IT concepts (IT assets and capabilities) in intra-organisational settings. This study draws on the IT business value literature to hypothesise about the relationships among specific technologies (mobile applications), IT-enabled organisational capabilities (collaborative capabilities), business process performance, and competitive advantage. The study draws on the supply chain literature to define the underlying dimensions of these constructs and how they are related to one another. The model developed in the study hypothesises that the deployment of mobile applications is positively associated with upstream, internal, and downstream collaborative capabilities. The ability of these capabilities to enhance competitive advantage is then mediated by improvements in six dimensions of business process performance – cost, efficiency, quality, flexibility, innovation, and sustainability. Based on previously developed measurement tools, a questionnaire for testing the relationship between the components of the model, as well as moderating variables, was created. The questionnaire was pre-tested via interviews with academics and practitioners and a pilot performed validated the constructs of the questionnaire. The empirical investigation is designed to encompass numerous countries in the European Union, enhancing the external validity of this study. Regression analyses and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) will be used to analyse the data collected.

Evaluating the Value of a Collaborative Manufacturing Network using Discrete-Event Simulation

Orit Raphaeli, Liron Rosenfeld, Lior Fink, Sigal Berman
18th Industrial and Engineering and Management Conference, March 2014, Tel-Aviv

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The value of e-business technologies, namely, the organisational impacts of implementing Internet-based Information Technologies (IT) in the supply chain context, has been the theme of recent literature in both information systems and operations management disciplines. Yet, existing empirical research has shown contradicting results. Moreover, determining the business value of an emerging technology, which has yet to be implemented, is a challenging endeavour.
This study aims to investigate the business value of a collaborative manufacturing network, currently developed by an EC research project, through the use of discrete event simulation (DES), which has seldom been used to study the business value of IT. We proclaim that DES can be used as a complementary approach to investigate the business value of emerging technologies.
The study employs three use-cases, in which the manufacturing network will be implemented: an Internet-based fashion retailer, a mobile maintenance service provider, and a plant engineering and commissioning provider. A simulation model representing the collaborative capabilities enabled by the collaborative manufacturing network was constructed for each use-case and compared to the traditionally managed supply chain benchmark.
Results of the fashion retailer use-case show that upstream collaborative capabilities in supplier selection process improved lead time yet increased travel distance, indicating the tradeoff in efficiency and sustainability aspects. Results also show the moderating effect of demand volume on the value obtained in the collaborating-network scenario. Initial results of the maintenance use-case show that downstream collaborative capabilities, enabled by information sharing with customers’ data, improve service efficiency. We are currently finalising the analysis of the Plant Engineering and Commissioning application area. Future research will augment DES based findings with findings from parallel ongoing survey-based evaluation efforts.

Enhanced Multi-Domain Access Control for Secure Mobile Collaboration Through Linked Data Cloud In Manufacturing

Patricia Ortiz, Oscar Lázaro, Mikel Uriarte, Manuel Carnerero
IEEE WoWMoM 2013, Madrid, Spain.

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Collaborative networked organisations represent an important paradigm to help manufacturing companies to cope with the challenges of market turbulence. However, although manufacturing companies are increasingly aiming at the implementation of mobile collaboration models, there are still some barriers that prevent manufacturers from effectively sharing big data leveraged in particular by the use of Internet of Things technologies. These barriers are basically related to the lack of security controls and lightweight data management enablers that would guarantee the protection of sensitive information published on the Linked Data cloud and leverage customers from the burden of Linked Data sharing. The aim of this paper is to present and discuss the industrial application of the necessary extensions to traditional role-based multi-domain access control approaches to enable secure and mobile collaboration among manufacturing enterprises in logistic, manufacturing and e-Commerce processes in the context of the Web of Data.

Mobile Maintenance (Predictive Scenarios) for Active Machines

Werner Altmann
Innovation Forum “SMART SYSTEMS Embedded”, Munich

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ComVantage (www.comvantage.eu) stands for Collaborative Manufacturing Network for Competitive Advantage and is a FP7 sponsored project with 13 international partners among which SAP is the Coordinator.
Using new concepts in the areas of Linked Data, Secure Information Modelling as well as Intuitive and Trustful Mobile Collaboration the ComVantageproject will establish an architectural framework for use cases in the context of mobile collaboration.
At the end of project month 18 / 20 (February resp. April 2013) we will be able to present visual prototypes with dedicated Apps on 7-inch mobile devices for collaboration between different roles in the course of predictive scenarios. We will also present the software engineering techniques for these apps using “orchestration” instead of programming.
The final results (partly presentable beginning resp. mid of 2014) will provide E4Y and other network partners of K&A and RST with new business perspectives in the market of Mobile Maintenance Systems.

Collaboration and Interoperability within a Virtual Enterprise Applied in a Visionary Mobile Maintenance Scenario

Tobias Münch, Jan Hladik, Angelika Salmen, Werner Altmann, Robert Buchmann, DimitrisKaragiannis, Jens Ziegler, Johannes Pfeffer, Leon Urbas, Oscar Lazaro, Patricia Ortiz, Oscar Lopez, Etxahun Sanchez
Revolutionising Enterprise Interoperability through Scientific Foundations, 2013

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This chapter presents an infrastructure approach for virtual enterprises developed by the consortium of the European research project ComVantageand discusses its impact with respect to the Mobile Maintenance application area. Our approach focuses on the core aspects of interoperability which are data interoperability and process interoperability. Regarding the interorganisational access to enterprise data, we propose a semantic abstraction layer that is completely decentralised and therefore meets the key requirement of virtuality. The execution of business processes and workflows across organisational boundaries are addressed by the unique App Orchestration Concept.

Conceptual Modelling for Mobile Maintenance: The ComVantage Case

Robert Buchmann
47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences

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The paper presents a fragment of a hybrid modelling method designed for the maintenance subdomain of the ComVantage EU research project. The method as a whole addresses modelling needs for business stakeholders trying to adopt and perform business-IT alignment with the technological specificity of the runtime prototypes of the ComVantage research project – more specifically, a front-end based on mobile apps with a back-end distributing Linked Data to support collaborative business processes. Mobile Maintenance is one of the project application areas and it has its own domain specificity, captured in the modelling method fragment described in this paper. Concepts from several layers of abstraction (both of general purpose and domain-specific) have been integrated in a metamodel partially implemented as a modelling tool. Additionally, an RDF export mechanism has been designed to expose the visual models as RDF data structures, thus bridging the design-time and run-time facets of the project.

Innovative Virtual Enterprise Approaches to Agile Micro and SME-based Collaboration Networks

Tobias Münch, Jan Hladik, Conny Weber, Robert Buchmann, DimitrisKaragiannis, Jens Ziegler, Leon Urbas, Oscar Lázaro
14th IFIP Working Conference on Virtual Enterprises, Dresden 2013

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With this abstract we want to propose a paper about “Innovative Virtual Enterprise Approaches to Agile Micro and SME-based Collaboration Networks” based on the EU project ComVantage. This paper shall demonstrate the capabilities of our generic approach of an infrastructure for virtual enterprises as well as evaluating its added-value within the Customer-oriented Production application area.
In order to master the competition in a global market, companies do not only have to operate more efficient but need to be much better cross-linked among each other. Moreover, agility in terms of networking and process execution is important. The execution of business processes across organisational boundaries as well as cross-linking data sets of collaboration partners are key success factors and initiate the transformation of isolated individual companies towards an integrated, agile virtual enterprise.
First, we will describe challenges and key requirements of an exemplary application scenario in the Customer-oriented Production application area, which mainly involves agile collaboration networks in the customised fashion industry. These networks of mostly small and micro companies need to quickly adopt rising trends within their order, production and logistic workflows in order to successfully pursue new market opportunities. An example in our selected scenario could be the offering of a new textile printing technique that is desired by consumers. Currently, these types of companies are rarely supported by agile and collaborative business software.
Second, we are going to present the ComVantage approach that addresses this niche and offers a lightweight and highly decentralised collaboration infrastructure. Besides a view on the generic architecture we will explain the designs of enabling key concepts. These key concepts are a semantic data harmonisation based on Linked Data and RDF in order to offer a uniform interface to client applications; appropriate access control mechanisms to secure confidential enterprise data of collaboration partners; the design and execution of interorganisational business processes with focus on collaboration aspects; the development and orchestration of single-purpose, mobile client applications to provide handy and usable tools to the user.
Finally we highlight major improvements to the selected application area (e.g. the end-to-end transparency of production processes), the impact of our prototype in economic, competition and social terms as well as summarising breakthrough innovation.

Hand Gesture Recognition as Means for Mobile Human Computer Interaction in Adverse Working Environments

Jens Ziegler, Randy Döring, Johannes Pfeffer, Leon Urbas
“Emerging Research and Trends in Interactivity and the Human-Computer Interface”, IGI Global, 2013

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Interacting with mobile devices can be challenging in adverse working environments. Using hand gestures for interaction can overcome severe usability issues that users are faced with when using mobile devices in industrial settings. This book chapter is dedicated to the design, implementation and evaluation of mobile information systems with hand gesture recognition as means for human computer interaction. The chapter provides concise theoretical background on human gestural interaction and gesture recognition, guidelines for the design of gesture vocabularies, recommendations for proper implementation and parameterisation of robust and reliable recognition algorithms on energy-efficient 8-bit architectures, and an elaborated methodology for the participative design and evaluation of gesture vocabularies which ensures their usability in the actual context of use. The chapter concludes with a case study which proves the suitability of the proposed framework for the design of efficient and reliable hand gesture based user interfaces.

Innovationsstrategie „Virtuelle Fabrik“ – mit Open Innovation und mobilen Technologien in die Industrie 4.0

Conny Weber, Reinhard Willfort, Angelika Salmen
KnowTech 2014/14.-15.10./Hanau

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Modern businesses operate in rapidly changing environment. Being successfully in such environments requires innovative strategies, based on new business models and open collaboration. The EU project ComVantage envisions a product-centric collaboration space for dynamic and flexible information exchange between multiple companies including the end-customer. Along the use case of a micro company working in the textile industry we present our vision of how small companies can leverage their ability to compete in a global market by collaborating together as a virtual factory.

Implementation and Operation of Collaborative Manufacturing Networks – The ComVantage Approach

Jens Ziegler, Markus Graube, Johannes Pfeffer, Schneider, Jan Hladik, Tobias Münch, Robert Buchmann, Patricia Ortiz, Leon Urbas
PRO-VE 2014, Dresden, Germany

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Collaborative networks of manufacturers, suppliers and even customers are an emerging trend in global manufacturing. Higher flexibility, shorter time to market and economic as well as technological synergies create value and strengthen the market position of such virtual enterprises.The ComVantage framework already provides a sophisticated technical approach for dynamic collaborative manufacturing networks based on semantic data, mobile app orchestration, business process modelling and sophisticated access control. This article discusses the services and processes that are necessary to implement and operate a virtual enterprise using the ComVantage framework. It identifies services and service providers, and proposes an infrastructure and a tool environment for the ComVantage approach.

Assessing the Business Value of E-business: A Simulation Study of the Organisational Impacts of a Collaborative Manufacturing Network

Orit Raphaeli, Liron Rosenfeld, Lior Fink, and Sigal Berman
OASIS Pre-ICIS Workshop, 2013, Italy

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E-business technologies and organisational performance has been the focus of research in both the information systems and operations research disciplines. However, due to the emerging nature of e-business technologies, determining whether a new technology can have business value is a challenging endeavor.
Though commonly used in operations research, discrete event simulation (DES) has seldom been used to study the business value of IT. DES models are suitable for handling stochastic behavior, thus offering a promising method for evaluating the supply chain impacts of emerging technologies. Accordingly, this study examines the prospective impacts of process capabilities enabled by a collaborative manufacturing network currently developed by the ComVantage consortium, a European Commission funded project, using three simulation models, representing three policies enabled by the collaborative platform.
The results of the simulation runs show mixed effects of upstream and downstream collaboration on operational performance. These findings demonstrate the inherent trade-off between different performance aspects, which implies that an action should be taken based on managerial priorities of efficiency, cost and the potential benefits of introducing additional flexibility and innovation.
This study presents the DES methodology for investigating performance impacts of emerging e-business technologies, using a process-oriented approach. This approach should complement, rather than substitute, the common, survey-based approaches. We suggest expanding the use of this approach to assess impacts in various organisational settings.

Flexibility vs. Security in Linked Enterprise Data Access Control Graphs

Markus Graube, Patricia Ortiz, Manuel Carnerero, Oscar Lázaro, Mikel Uriarte, Leon Urbas
IAS 2013, 9th International Conference on Information Assurance and Security, Tunisia

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The Semantic Web offers easy extensibility and interoperability of information. This provides a great potential for industrial companies allowing to share information with partners in a virtual enterprise in order to get faster and more flexible together and have an advantage in the market. However, there is still the barrier that there is no way to protect own information with a fine grain.
We present an approach using access control graphs which are automatically inferred by policy rules taking a role model into account. The queries on Semantic Web information are handled by SPARQL queries which are automatically rewritten on runtime in order to fit the views. This paper demonstrates the balance between flexibility and security using Linked Data in industrial environments.
We show that the amount and complexity of the rules is highly dependant on the chosen modelling pattern.
Thus, this security approach requires a moderate restriction of the huge flexibility in modelling Linked Data.
Additionally, the approach allows not only to secure the access to Linked Data but can also be leveraged for consistency checking of Linked Data data structures. Thus, clients can rely on these information invariants.

ComVantage: Decentralized Collaboration and Interoperability within a Virtual Enterprise

Angelika Salmen, Tobias Münch, Steffen Buzin, Jan Hladik, Werner Altmann, Conny Weber, Dimitris Karagiannis, Robert Buchmann, Jens Ziegler, Johannes Pfeffer, Markus Graube, Manuel Carnerero, Oscar López, Mikel Uriarte, Patricia Ortiz, Oscar Lázaro
Future Internet Assembly, Dublin, 2013

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With this abstract we want to propose a poster about “ComVantage: Decentralized Collaboration and Interoperability within a Virtual Enterprise” based on the EU project ComVantage. This poster shall demonstrate the capabilities of our generic approach as well as evaluating its added-value within the mobile maintenance domain. First, we will point out goals and objectives of our research activity. Second, we will describe challenges and key requirements from a selected use case as well as highlighting the impact of the applied prototype. Third, the generic design of our approach is described in detail starting with the overall architecture. Afterwards, the most important topics from a technical view – secure interorganisational access to information and execution of interorganisational business processes within orchestrated single purpose apps – are explained. Finally we highlight the impact of our prototype in economic, competition and social terms as well as summarizing breakthrough innovation.

OntoSketch: Towards Digital Sketching as a Tool for Creating and Extending Ontologies for Non-Experts

Marius Brade, Florian Schneider, Angelika Salmen, Reiner Groh
iKNOW 2013 Graz, Austria

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This paper introduces a sketch-based interaction concept called OntoSketch, enabling non-experts to create and extend formally represented knowledge. Contrary to current editors, OntoSketch is based on lightweight pen and paper-like interactions, including a visual vocabulary that supports non-experts in modeling knowledge about specific domain information. The visualization concept is based on previous work as well as insights from a user study with 20 participants. OntoSketch enables the user to work in three views with his data: created domain examples, related or emerging abstract concepts and a combination of both. This allows for reflection while creating formalized knowledge. An export function allows a non-expert to generate an ontology out of his sketch-based work, without the necessity to understand the concept of ontologies in detail. Our approach is demonstrated via a prototypical tablet-PC application.

Begreifbare Interaktion mit Distributed Wearable User Interfaces

Jens Ziegler, Leon Urbas
Mensch und Computer 2013

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Today, mobile interaction is dominated by touch and stylus based interaction mechanisms on highly integrated monolithic devices. This interaction paradigm is inappropriate for mobile information systems for mobile work support, e.g. for farmers or plant workers. Context-specific constraints and task-specific requirements call for task and context adaptable, highly-optimised user interfaces that are highly ergonomic on the particular context of use. This paper introduces the concept of Distributed Wearable User Interfaces (DWUI). It presents the conceptual foundations and the design rationale for DWUI and demonstrates its applicability using an example implementation in the field of industrial maintenance.

Use of ontologies and RDF/OWL in practice

Jan Hladik, Conny Christl, Markus Graube, Frank Haferkorn, Pfeff
10th OWL: Experiences and Directions Workshop (OWLED 2013), Montpellier, France, 2013

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We present a product-centric collaboration platform comprising partner companies and their customers. By employing the Linked Data principles it enables them to easily publish and retrieve information about products and to include user-generated content as well as publicly available information from the Linked Open Data web. Information about products is modelled as OWL ontologies, which makes it more useful and easier to understand for application developers. Self-explanatory data structures also lower the threshold for new partners interested in joining the network and contributing their products. The versatility of this approach is illustrated by two application scenarios.

Using mobile technology for interorganisational collaboration and end-customer integration

Conny Christl, Jan Hladik, Markus Graube,Leon Urbas, Reinhard Willfort
I-Know 2013, 13th International Conference on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Technologies ACM Press (2013)

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Using mobile technology for inter-organizational collaboration and end-customer integration. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Technologies – i-KNOW ’13, ACM Press (2013). mobile technology for interorganisational collaboration and end-customer integration

Abstract: The pace of technological and social change profoundly impacts the manufacturing and service industry and determines an important driver for competitiveness. The EU Project ComVantage aims at addressing the limitations of the existing manufacturing ICT infrastructure by making use of the advantages of mobile and semantic technology. Along the use case of a micro company working in the textile industry we present our vision of how small companies can leverage their ability to compete in a global market by collaborating together as a virtual factory, and how they can offer innovative services by integrating their end-customers’ knowledge. We use lightweight and affordable mobile technology as infrastructure for connecting data from different business partners including the customers and present a new approach for building industrial mobile applications. Semantic technologies allow easy integration of different data sources and high flexibility, therefore we apply Linked Data principles for easily retrieving, exchanging and publishing information about products, user generated content or public information from the Linked Open Data web.

Inovativni pristop managementa dobaviteljske verige – ComVantage

Maja Leber, Conny Weber, Reinhard Willfort
Projektni forum 2013, Ljubljana

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Installations of production lines, customer-oriented co-ordination and modification of production processes, as well as maintenance of machinery are core areas of substantial information exchange for competitive advantage. Offering a web-based collaboration space where experts interact with on-site workforces, where customers interact with producing parties, where service technicians interact with construction engineers or diagnostic teams – independent of any location – will provide a new dimension of efficiency. This comprises especially dramatic reduction of travelling time and costs, as well as carbon footprint, essential reduction of latencies and delay, but increased documentation and knowledge exchange throughout all parties including the end-customer, and thus an increased potential for innovations, resulting in a boost for the European industry.

We envision a product-centric collaboration space for dynamic and flexible information exchange between multiple companies including the end-customer. ComVantage will build on top of best practices from the Web for providing product-centric and workflow-based mobile apps. The collaboration space will be an extension to existing business and engineering software that enables to share selected business data and machine data of interorganisational relevance to increase efficiency and flexibility of production processes throughout a dynamic network of manufacturers. ComVantage as collaborative manufacturing network for companies of any size will lead the European market to competitive advantage and sustainable business operations.

User Interface Design for Multi-Agent Manufacturing Execution Systems

Gil Kedar, Gil Baron, Sigal Berman, Tal Oron-Gilad
IERM 2013 (The 6th Research Conference for Industrial Engineering & Management), Israel

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Highly automated production floors pose many challenges to user interface (UI) design. Distributed MES (Manufacturing Execution System) based on Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) facilitate flexible links among real-time event-driven production floor components and between the production floor components and higher-level business functions, offering increased robustness along with multiple options for process abstraction layers. This flexibility calls for new conceptual approaches to factory UI design.
We utilize Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) paradigms coupled with a continuous dialogue between UI designers and system architecture developers to shape and structure the MES system. Conceptualizations originating from UI considerations, as well as quota and information processing demands, help formulate the architecture of the different agents embedded in the system. The theoretical development is accompanied by a case-study design of interfaces for the Integrated Manufacturing Technologies (IMT) laboratory at the department of Industrial Engineering and Management in the Ben-Gurion University. The UI is designed in parallel to the development of an SOA-based MES system for a robotic assembly line.
We are currently finalizing the conceptual design and the implementation of the MES and UIs of factory floor components. A methodological usability study will be conducted for assessing interaction with the abstract constructs and software agents.

Linked Data as Enabler for Mobile Applications for Complex Tasks in Industrial Settings

Markus Graube, Jens Ziegler, Jan Hladik, Leon Urbas
ETFA 2013, 18th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation

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Nowadays, apps provide support for various simple tasks. They are easy to use and highly usable. However, future apps should support more complex workflows especially when trying to enter the professional business world. They need to provide higher reusability and composability in order to make them suitable for complex and alterable workflows that are common in industry. The concept of App Orchestration allows supporting complex tasks with aid of an ensemble of adapted and managed apps. Therefore, the apps raise several demands on the underlying information backend.
This article describes these requirements and presents the Linked Data approach, which is a possible solution for an integrated, semantically described information space for this purpose. It describes possible uses and benefits of the proposed solution for the concept of App Orchestration and shows them in a use case of mobile maintenance. It further discusses the current status of the solution and provides future research challenges.

Enhancing mobile Interaction With Distributed Wearable User Interfaces

Jens Ziegler and Leon Urbas
7th IADIS Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction Conference (IHCI 2013)

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Mobile Interaction in adverse environments calls for highly optimized and tightly integrated user interfaces. Continuos variations in tasks and context in mobile settings require adaptability and flexibility of the user interface components. Today, mobile systems largely rely on direct touch interaction, which is often unsuitable for adverse environments. A change of the input style or modality usually requires additional hardware which has been designed and manufactured for the particular needs of the environment. The concept of Distributed Wearable User Interfaces provides a common conceptual and technical framework for the integration of loosely coupled and tightly integrated collaborating input and output devices. The devices are distributed on the user’s body and form a consistent yet adaptable and flexible user interface to a mobile system. Based on substantial previous work, this paper introduces distributed wearable user interfaces as a flexible, adaptable and usable framework for mobile interaction. It presents a conceptual framework based on the Zero Operational Inertia Device paradigm, and a case study in the domain of mobile industrial maintenance.

Requirements Definition for Domain-Specific Modelling Languages: The ComVantage Case

Robert Buchmann, Dimitris Karagiannis and Niksa Visic
Informatics community at BIR 2013 , Warszaw

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The goal of this paper is to investigate the challenge of defining and answering modelling language requirements with domain specificity in the instance case of the ComVantage EU project, which provides a multifaceted domain, with subdomains identified along two dimensions: a) the application dimension, where subdomains are defined by the application areas providing use cases: mobile maintenance, customer-oriented production and production line commissioning; b) the technical dimension, where subdomains are derived from a grouping of the encountered technical problems – supply chain definition in virtual enterprises, business process-driven mobile app and data requirements, business process management considering the execution environment and control of access to its resources/artefacts, design of products and services, or incident escalation management. The paper describes the requirements sources, their definition methodology and an initial derivation of modelling method building blocks from the identified requirements.

Improving Industrial Collaboration with Linked Data and OWL

Jan Hladik, Markus Graube, Frank Haferkorn, Conny Weber, Johaness Pfeffer, Leon Urbas and Reinhard Willfort
OWLED (co-located with ESWC), France

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We present a product-centric collaboration platform comprising partner companies and their customers. By employing the Linked Data principles it enables them to easily publish and retrieve information about products and to include user-generated content as well as publicly available information from the Linked Open Data web. Information about products is modelled as OWL ontologies, which makes it more useful and easier to understand for application developers. Self explanatory data structures also lower the threshold for new partners interested in joining the network and contributing their products. The versatility of this approach is illustrated by two application scenarios.

App-Orchestrierung – Vernetzte Apps für komplexe Aufgaben in der Industrie

Johannes Pfeffer, Markus Graube, Jens Ziegler, Leon Urbas
atp-edition, Automatisierungstechnische Praxis 55(3), pp. 34-41.

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Apps are a success story for mobile devices. Tailored to a specific task they can offer high usability. However, today’s mobile applications are not yet designed to support complex workflows that require frequent switching between apps. To overcome this limitation, we have developed the concept of App Orchestration. This approach makes it possible to connect the apps with each other while maintaining the work context, e.g. in Virtual Factories. Through usage of task, workflow, and context models the orchestration process can be automated. The concept was implemented prototypically and subjected to a formative evaluation.

Bereitstellung von transienten Daten in Linked Data

Markus Graube, Frank Haferkorn, Jan Hladik, Jens Ziegler, Leon Urbas
GMA Kongress Automation 2013, 25.-26. Baden-Baden, Germany

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Today’s picture of systems, processes and personnel in digital information spaces principle enables high interoperability between different companies. However, the lack of practical and easily deployable methods for data integration is a high entry-level hurdle represents the use of Linked Data, by its semantics, easy extensibility and cross-domain character reduce this barrier significantly and thus the development of Virtual Factories as close project-based networks under the cross-company production, promote. The Linked Data principles with a focus on the modeling, static linking and deployment of data were created.
This post is dedicated to the handling of transient data for industrial systems and displays for solutions within a Linked Data approach for Virtual Factories on. For this, the demand for automation of transient data is described, received on their particular requirements and demonstrated that the classical concepts of the Semantic Web they can not cover adequately. Therefore, several approaches for the provision of transient data in Linked Data are presented and evaluated. Finally, a concept of Linked Data adapter is placed in front, which separates a separation between the semantics of data source, and date and the actual access over secure HTTP requests to the real middleware. Finally advantages and disadvantages of the approach are discussed, upon which research questions identified.

Integration von Automatisierungsinfrastrukturen für die Fabrik der Zukunft

Tobias Münch, Jan Hladik, Werner Altmann, Jens Ziegler, Leon Urbas
Automation 2013, 25/06/2013, Baden Baden, Germany

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Within this paper, the consortium of the European research project ComVantage (funded within the FP7) demonstrates the capabilities of their generic infrastructure for virtual enterprises as well as evaluating its added-value within the mobile maintenance domain. First, we will point out goals and objectives of our research activity. Second, we will describe challenges and key requirements from a selected use case as well as highlighting the impact of the applied prototype. Third, the generic design of our approach is described in detail starting with the overall architecture. Afterwards, the most important topics from a technical point of view – secure interorganisational access to information and execution of interorganisational business processes within orchestrated single purpose apps – are explained. Finally we highlight the impact of our prototype in economic, competition and social terms as well as summarizing breakthrough innovation.

Modelling Collaborative-driven Supply Chains: The ComVantage Method

Robert Buchmann, Dimitris Karagiannis
IFAC MIM 2013, 19-21 June, St. Petersburg, Russia

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The paper gives a design view on the first version of the ComVantage modelling method, aimed to support the design and analysis of supply chains that are collaborative, product-centric, process-driven and mapped on IT systems which rely on mobile apps and Linked Data resources. The specification is the result of the conceptualization phase, in the context of a metamodelling specification framework comprising a modelling language, a modelling procedure and a set of mechanisms to be implemented in a modelling tool. The aim is to bridge the business-IT gap and to support modelling activities in the Future Internet Enterprise supply chains on multiple abstraction and detail levels, and also to facilitate their alignment to domain-specific frameworks such as SCOR or VRM.

User Interface Design for Multi-Agent Manufacturing Execution Systems

Gil Kedar, Gil Baron, Sigal Berman, Tal Oron-Gilad
IERM 2013 (The 6th Research Conference for Industrial Engineering & Management), Israel

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Highly automated production floors pose many challenges to user interface (UI) design. Distributed MES (Manufacturing Execution System) based on Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) facilitate flexible links among real-time event-driven production floor components and between the production floor components and higher-level business functions, offering increased robustness along with multiple options for process abstraction layers. This flexibility calls for new conceptual approaches to factory UI design.
We utilize Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) paradigms coupled with a continuous dialogue between UI designers and system architecture developers to shape and structure the MES system. Conceptualizations originating from UI considerations, as well as quota and information processing demands, help formulate the architecture of the different agents embedded in the system. The theoretical development is accompanied by a case-study design of interfaces for the Integrated Manufacturing Technologies (IMT) laboratory at the department of Industrial Engineering and Management in the Ben-Gurion University. The UI is designed in parallel to the development of an SOA-based MES system for a robotic assembly line.
We are currently finalizing the conceptual design and the implementation of the MES and UIs of factory floor components. A methodological usability study will be conducted for assessing interaction with the abstract constructs and software agents.

Gamification in kollaborativen Produktionsnetzwerken – Chancen und Risiken

Philipp Herzig, Angelika Salmen
ATP Journal 55, March 2013

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Gamification aims at utilizing game mechanics for non-gaming contexts. It is an innovative concept to increase intrinsic motivation and participation of customers (external business view) on the one hand, and motivation of employees (internal business view) on the other hand. For instance, gamification improves transparency towards specified goals such as increase of efficiency, product quality, customer satisfaction, and sustainability. Operationalized through scores or awards, these factors can be continuously optimized by specific missions and challenges according to the related set of rules. Currently, gamification approaches are limited to central management of business processes

Joint Use of SCOR and VRM

Marite Kirikova, Robert Buchmann, Razvan Aurelian Costin
Perspectives in Business Informatics Research
Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing Volume 128, 2012, pp 111-125

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Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) and Value Reference Model (VRM) are two popular business process reference models. Practitioners have suggested integrating these frameworks for achieving maximum value from the reference models. However, there are no methods and tools available for the integration of SCOR and VRM. The goal of the research is to find similarities and patterns of differences in the aforementioned reference models. The obtained results are applied to propose blueprint of guidelines for joint use of SCOR and VRM. The paper also presents a comparison between SCOR and VRM from several perspectives, which can support a semantic realignment of processes between the categories proposed by the two management frameworks.

Teaching Manufacturing-Oriented Information Technology for the Future Factory

Gali Naveh, Adir Even, Lior Fink, Sigal Berman
The 6th Israel Association for Information Systems conference, Haifa, 2012

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Hands-on teaching is one of the best ways to convey complex industrial environment such as the future factory. The Integrated Manufacturing Technology (IMT) laboratory, a future factory facility, currently being built at the Department of Industrial Engineering and Management (IEM) at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev is aiming at facilitating such learning activities while demonstrating the links between the intangible information systems and the physical real-life organisational environment. Concepts underlying the IMT laboratory come from the fields of production planning, intelligent automation, information systems, and human factors. Its main goal is to facilitate teaching and research on the integration of future factory concepts, cutting edge technologies of shop floor automation, and organisational information systems. The first IT course to enter the IMT laboratory was Enterprise Information Architecture (BI). The linkage between the course and the future factory laboratory was carefully planned, resulting in general positive feedback from students. In the coming semesters, the IMT laboratory will be integrated in the curriculum of additional IT courses, and as the laboratory construction progresses, more hands-on activity will take place.

RFID as Universal Entry Point to Linked Data Clouds

Jens Ziegler, Markus Graube, Leon Urbas
3rd IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technology and Applications (RFID-TA) 2012, Nice, France

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Semantic web technologies are a key enabler for future information systems. The concept of Linked Data allows flexible inter-organizational collaboration and dynamic data integration. It surpasses the limitations of prevalent relational databases and proprietary access technologies. RFID, on the other hand, has been successfully applied to integrate physical artifacts into complex information systems. It allows the identification of artifacts by a unique identifier leveraging concepts such as the Internet of Things. Using the existing RFID ecosystem as universal entry point to Linked Data clouds makes it possible to connect the semantic description of the real world with the physical artifacts within this world. This provides new ways of merging and exploring real and virtual content. This paper presents an approach for using RFID as universal entry point to Linked Data clouds for task-driven and context-aware mobile support systems.

Einfache Apps für komplexe Aufgaben – das Konzept der App-Orchestrierung am Beispiel industrieller Instandhaltung

Johannes Pfeffer, Markus Graube, Jens Ziegler, Leon Urbas
Fachkonferenz useware 2012. 4.-5. Dezember 2012, Kaiserslautern

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Apps are a success story for mobile devices. Tailored to a specific task they can offer high usability. However, today’s mobile applications are not yet designed to support complex workflows that require frequent switching between apps. To overcome this limitation, we have developed the concept of App Orchestration. This approach makes it possible to connect the apps with each other while maintaining the work context, e.g. in Virtual Factories. Through usage of task, workflow, and context models the orchestration process can be automated. The concept was implemented prototypically and subjected to a formative evaluation.

The Business Value of Emerging ICT: An Empirical Investigation Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Technique

Orit Raphaeli, Gali Naveh, Michal Levi, Sigal Berman, Lior Fink
The 6th Israel Association for Information Systems conference, Haifa, 2012

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In the past decade, with the advent of new e-business technologies, firms have engaged in initiatives that create seamless integration of entities across enterprises over the internet. Recently, the convergence of e-business with mobile communications technologies have emerged to play an increasingly role in business, providing a variety of wireless data communication capabilities. However, given the complexity of the processes through which the deployment of such technologies actually impact business performance, their business value has yet remained an elusive entity.
This study addresses this challenge by providing insight into how organisations can realise the benefits of emerging technologies in supply chain initiatives. We propose a research framework based on a process-oriented approach to the business value of ICT. Based on this framework, we examine the business value attributable to the implementation of a platform that employs Linked Data and mobile apps, in three case studies. The data is analysed using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to compare the effects of ICT-based capabilities on business process performance.

SketchViz: A Sketching Interface for Domain Comprehension Tasks Illustrated by an Industrial Network Use Case

Marius Brade, Christian, Brändel, Angelika Salmen, Reiner Groh
iKNOW 2012 Graz, Austria

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In this paper a sketch-based prototype for dynamic domain comprehension tasks is presented. It is operated on a tablet PC and can be used like pen and paper, but additionally recognizes objects, text and relations as digital entities for structured editing. The system utilizes sketch based template matching to recognize basic items the user creates. A flexible data model is used to translate the users’ interactions into an ordered composite structure. The proposed prototype addresses knowledge workers allowing for interactive visualization and validation of organization concepts, topics, and expert management, using lightweight pen and paper-like interactions.

Gamification in dezentralen Peer-to-Peer Kollaborationsnetzwerken – Möglichkeiten, Herausforderungen, Risiken

Philipp Herzig, Angelika Salmen
Useware 2012 Kaiserslautern, Germany

View abstract

Gamification aims at utilizing game mechanics for non-gaming contexts. It is an innovative concept to increase intrinsic motivation and participation of customers (external business view) on the one hand, and motivation of employees (internal business view) on the other hand. For instance, gamification improves transparency towards specified goals such as increase of efficiency, product quality, customer satisfaction, and sustainability. Operationalized through scores or awards, these factors can be continuously optimized by specific missions and challenges according to the related set of rules. Currently, gamification approaches are limited to central management of business processes.

Browsing Reversible Neighborhood Relations in Linked Data on Mobile Devices

Johannes Pfeffer, Markus Graube, Leon Urbas
Int. Conf. on Pervasive Embedded Computing and Communication Systems (PECCS 2012), pp. 150-155

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Within the manufacturing and process industries pervasive computing is still less prominent than in other areas. This is mainly due to the lack of mobile solutions that are adapted to the special requirements for industrial tasks. This paper presents a novel mobile application for navigation in Linked Data. It follows the principle of limited purpose applications: support a single task and be good at it. First, we introduce a data model for representing reversible neighborhood relations in Linked Data. Second, we provide a human computer-interface for mobile devices that hides the complexity of the Linked Data Cloud. It allows browsing of reversible neighborhood relations such as industrial Piping & Instrumentation Diagrams and can be generalized to support arbitrary predecessor-successor networks. Third, we discuss our concept in respect to a real life example of a maintenance task in a large industrial plant.

Beyond App-Chaining: Mobile App Orchestration for Efficient Model Driven Software Generation

Jens Ziegler, Markus Graube, Johannes Pfeffer, Leon Urbas
Int. Conf. on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA) 2012, Krakow, Poland

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Mobile apps are a success story for mobile devices, particularly in the consumer sector. Tailored to a specific task, they offer optimal usability for a defined class of devices. However, today’s apps are neither designed to collaborate nor to support complex workflows. To overcome these limitations we developed the concept of Mobile App Orchestration. This pragmatic model-driven software generation approach makes it possible to use mobile apps even in complex industrial workflows. We demonstrate the entire development process in an exemplary use case and explain solutions and challenges of our approach. An experimental evaluation of a manually conducted orchestration with 11 participants supports our design hypothesis, that the proposed approach can deliver usable mobile support systems for virtual factories.

Autonomous Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition in Industrial Settings

Jens Ziegler, Randy Döring, Johannes Pfeffer, Leon Urbas
U6th IADIS Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction Conference (IHCI 2012), 21.-23.7.2012, Lisbon

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In this paper we present a robust and reliable system for interaction with mobile devices using dynamic hand gestures. While other approaches rely on remote computation our system is wearable, lightweight and unobtrusive. It is usable in industrial settings where touch-based interaction is inconvenient and resource efficiency is important. The recognition algorithm is based on Hidden-Markov-Models and optimized for fixed-point arithmetic available in low-cost embedded controllers. The system is highly reliable providing recognition rates significantly higher than the design target of 90 % for an alphabet of 10 gestures. The evaluation of the resulting solution has yielded an effectiveness of 97 % and mean execution times of less than one second. These performance figures are sufficient to consider the presented system an effective and energy efficient alternative to systems that depend on remote computation. It provides autonomous and reliable interaction for single-handed operation of mobile devices in rough industrial settings.

Data and tool integration with Linked Data for industrial use cases

Markus Graube, Johannes Pfeffer, Jens Ziegler, Leon Urbas
Automation 2012, 06/2012, Baden Baden, Germany

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The automation and process industries are characterized by high heterogeneity and incompatibility of tools and data sets. Current approaches like world models or domain specific ontologies were only able to solve this problem in few application areas. Those solutions usually show drawbacks because of a lack of extensibility, too much freedom in the actual implantation or missing interoperability with existing tool. They have high initial costs with no immediate return on investment. In this article we present a new approach of data and tool integration using the concepts of the semantic web for industrial use. Based on the use case of mobile maintenance we show the possibility how to use Linked Data to publish complex information structures in a unified format and with unified access mechanism. Further, we present the novel concept of app orchestration. This allows the reuse of invariants in data for automatically generate new user interfaces while keeping the adaptability to the actual use case and meeting usability requirements.

Linked Data as integrating technology for industrial data

Markus Graube, Johannes Pfeffer, Jens Ziegler, Leon Urbas
Int. Journal of Distributed Systems and Technologies Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 40-52. DOI:10.401
14th Int. Conference on Network-Based Information Systems (NBiS), 2011

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In a globalised world the process industry faces great challenges regarding data management. Rising demands for agility and rapid shortening of innovation cycles have lead to project-based collaborations. Highly specialised small and medium enterprises are forming so-called virtual companies to profit from each other. Today, however, industrial data structures are characterised by high heterogeneity. This complicates collaborative work and hinders the flow of data between different stakeholders from various domains. Existing solutions are much too rigid and potentially cumbersome. There still is a broad gap between the need of virtual companies to share data from mixed sources in a controlled way and the available technologies for this purpose.

Networked apps for complex industrial tasks – Usable and efficient App
Orchestration

Johannes Pfeffer, Markus Graube, Jens Ziegler, Leon Urbas
Apps für komplexe Aufgaben in der Industrie. atp edition – Automatisierungstechnische Praxis, 55(3), 34–41.

View abstract

Apps are a success story for mobile devices. Tailored to a specific task they can offer high usability. However, today’s mobile applications are not yet designed to support complex workflows that require frequent switching between apps. To overcome this limitation, we have developed the concept of App Orchestration. This approach makes it possible to connect the apps with each other while maintaining the work context, e.g. in Virtual Factories. Through usage of task, workflow, and context models the orchestration process can be automated. The concept was implemented prototypically and subjected to a formative evaluation.